As human civilization expanded, so did diseases.
In the area of infectious diseases, epidemics are a very serious condition. The more the epidemic spreads across borders, the more official the disease becomes.
Infectious diseases existed during the days of the hunt, but the transition to agricultural life 10,000 years ago created communities that made the flu possible. Malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, influenza, smallpox, and other diseases began to appear at this time.
Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during the Middle Ages, if not from antiquity (24). In addition to recurrent, seasonal, and regional infections, there have been occasional flu-like illnesses (9, 67). When an outbreak occurs, 50% or more of infected individuals can be infected in one year, and the number of flu-related deaths may exceed the expected level (2, 60). By the early 1500’s, there appeared to be 13 flu or more fluctuations (see ‘Past Flu Diseases’, below); 120 years ago there were undoubted epidemics in 1889, 1918, 1957, 1968 and 1977 (47). In 1918, the worst pandemic in recorded history resulted in the deaths of more than 546,000 people in the United States (675,000 people) (67) and an estimated 50 million people worldwide (26).
Although most experts believe that we will face another flu pandemic, it is impossible to predict when it will occur, where it will occur, or how big it will be. And there is no consensus as to what kind of flu virus could cause the next pandemic. The continued spread of H5N1 agenic influenza virus (HPAI) in poultry markets on many continents, combined with a growing number of ‘spray-over’ infections, has increased interest in disease prognosis (21, 73). The H5N1 HPAI virus caused epizootic in chickens in southern China in 1996, followed less than a year later by a Hong Kong epizootic that released 18 cases of ‘garbage’ and six deaths. H5N1 strains continued to spread after that in China, re-emerged in the epizootic genre in 2003, and spread more widely thereafter. The expansion was accompanied by the exposure and spread of various H5N1 HPAI genes (4, 5). Since 2003, the spread of the H5N1 virus has led to epizootics in about 60 countries on three continents, resulting in 403 cases and 254 deaths (as of January 27, 2009) (80), millions of bird deaths, and and infection and death in many places. other species of mammals (77).
In addition to uncertainty in the historical record of previrology, studying previous epidemics can help guide future epidemics and lead to a better understanding of the complex ecosystem that causes the formation of influenza A viruses. Before discussing the past epidemics, we will introduce the definitions and suggest ways to classify a historical event such as the flu pandemic.
Event Day Venue Disease Number (death) Ref
1200 BC Babylonian influenza 1200 BC Babylon, or Babirus of Persia, Central Asia, Mesopotamia and Southern Asia Sanskrit scholars obtained records of a disease similar to the Unknown Flu 
Plague Athens 429-426 BC Greece, Libya, Egypt, Ethiopia Unidentified, possibly typhus, typhoid fever or viral hemorrhagic fever 75,000-100,000    
Epidemic 412 BC 412 BC Greece (northern Greece, Roman Republic) Unknown, possibly with flu Unknown 
Antonine Plague 165-180 (up to 190) Roman Empire unknown, possibly smallpox 5-10 million 
Cyprian plague 250-266 Europe Unknown, possibly smallpox Unknown  
Justinian plague (onset of the first plague) 541-542 in Europe and West Asia Bubonic disease affects 15-100 million people (25-60% of the European population)   
590 Roman plague (part of the first plague) 590 Rome, Byzantine Empire Bubonic Disease Unknown 
Sheree’s plague (part of the first plague) 627-628 Bilad al-Sham Bubonic disease 25,000+
Amwas Plague (part of the first plague) 638-699 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Africa Bubonic Disease Unknown 
Plague 664 (part of the first plague) 664-689 British townships Bubonic syndrome Unknown 
The plague of 698-701 (part of the first plague) 698-701 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Syria, Mesopotamia Bubonic Disease Unknown 
735-737 Japanese smallpox epidemic 735-737 Japan smallpox 2 million (approx. 1⁄3 of the Japanese population)  
Plague 746-747 (part of the first plague) 746-747 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Africa Bubonic Disease Unknown 
The Black Death (onset of the Second Plague) 1346-1353 Europe, Asia and North Africa Bubonic plague
Yersinia pestis bacterium
75-200 million (10-60% of Europeans) 
Sweating Disease (multiple outbreaks) 1485-1551 Britain (England) and continental Europe Unknown, probably an unknown type of 10,000+ hantavirus 
1489 Spain Diabetes 1489 Spain Sphus 17,000 
1510 flu pandemic 1510 Asia, North Africa, Europe Influenza Unknown, about 1% of those infected 
1520 Smallpox epidemic in Mexico 1519-1520 Mexico Smallpox 5-8 million (40% of the population) 
Cocoliztli epidemic of 1545-1548 1545-1548 Mexico Salmonella enterica 5-15 million (80% of the population)    
1557 flu pandemic 1557-1559 Asia, Africa, Europe and America The flu is unknown
1561 Smallpox epidemic in Chile 1561-1562 Chile Smallpox (20-25% of indigenous peoples) 
1563 London Disease 1563-1564 London, England Bubonic Disease 20,100+ 
The Cocoliztli epidemic of 1576 1576-1580 in Mexico Salmonella enterica is probably 2-2.5 million (50% of the population)    
1582 Tenerife epidemic 1582-1583 Tenerife, Spain Bubonic plague 5,000-59,000 
1592–1596 Seneca tribe measles 1592-1596 Seneca tribe, North America Unknown 
1592-93 Malta epidemic 1592-1593 Malta Bubonic disease 3,000 
1592–93 London Disease 1592–1593 London, England Bubonic Disease 19,900+ 
1596-1602 Spain attacks epidemic 1596-1602 Spain Bubonic disease 600,000-700,000 
1600-1650 South America Malaria epidemic 1600-1650 South America Malaria Unknown 
In 1603 London epidemic 1603 in London, England 40,000 Bubonic disease   
1616 New England epidemics 1616-1620 Southern New England, British North America, especially the people of Wampanoag Anonymous, probably leptospirosis with Weil syndrome. Older definitions include yellow fever, bubonic plague, flu, smallpox, smallpox, typhus, and syndemic infections of hepatitis B and Hepatitis D (estimated at 30-90% of people) [40 ] 
1629-1631 Italian disease 1629-1631 Italy Bubonic disease 1 million 
1632-1635 Augsburg is a pandemic 1632-1635 Augsburg, Germany Bubonic disease 13,712 
Massachusetts Smallpox Epidemic 1633-1634 Massachusetts Bay Colony, Thirteen Infectious Diseases 1,000 
1634-1640 Wyandot people epidemic 1634-1640 Wyandot people, North America Smallpox and Influenza 15,000-25,000 
1637 London Epidemic 1636-1637 London and Westminster, England Bubonic Disease 10,400 
1641-1644 China Epidemic 1641-1644 China Bubonic Disease Unknown 
Seville’s Great Plague 1647-1652 Spain Bubonic Disease 500,000 
1648 Yellow America Disease 1648 Central America Yellow fever Unidentified 
Naples Plague 1656 Italy Bubonic Disease 240,000-1,250,000  
1663-1664 Amsterdam epidemic 1663-1664 in Amsterdam, Netherlands Bubonic disease 24,148 
Great London Plague 1665-1666 England Bubonic disease 100,000  
1668 The French Plague 1668 40,000 French Bubonic Plagues 
1675-76 Malta Epidemic 1675-1676 Malta Bubonic Disease 11,300 
1676-1685 Spain suffers 1676-1685 Spain Spain Bubonic disease unknown 
1677-1678 Boston smallpox epidemic 1677-1678 Massachusetts Bay Colony, Britain North America Smallpox 750-1000 
Vienna Epidemic 1679 in Vienna, Austria Bubonic disease is 76,000 
1681 Prague epidemic 1681 in Prague, Czech Republic Bubonic plague 83,000 
1687 South Africa Influenza outbreak 1687 South Africa Unknown, possibly Unknown Flu 
1693 Boston yellow fever epidemic 1693 Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Britain North America Yellow fever 3,100+ 
1699 Charleston and Philadelphia yellow fever 1699 Charleston and Philadelphia, Britain North America Yellow fever 520 (300 Charleston, 220 Philadelphia) 
1702 yellow fever epidemic 1702 New York City, Britain, North America Yellow fever 500 
1702-1703 iSt. Lawrence Valley smallpox epidemic 1702-1703 New France, Canada Smallpox 1,300 
1707-1709 Iceland smallpox epidemic 1707-1709 Iceland smallpox 18,000+ (36% of people) 
Outbreak of the Great Northern War 1710-1712 Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania Bubonic Disease 164,000  
1713-1715 North America The measles epidemic 1713-1715 Thirteen pumpkins and New France, Canada Measles Known  
Marseille Plague 1720-1722 France Bubonic Disease 100,000+ 
1721 Boston smallpox outbreak in 1721-1722 Massachusetts Bay Colony Smallpox 844 
1730 yellow fever epidemic 1730 Cádiz, Spain 2,200 yellow fever 
1732-1733 Thirteen Colonial Flu 1732-1733 Thirteen Colonial Flu Unknown 
1733 French new smallpox epidemic 1733 New France, Canada Smallpox Unidentified 
1735-1741 Diphtheria Epidemic 1735-1741 New England, New York Province, New Jersey Province, Britain North America Diphtheria 20,000 
The Great Plague of 1738 1738 Balkans Bubonic 50,000 diseases 
1738-1739 smallpox epidemic in North Carolina 1738-1739 Carolina Province, Thirteen Tuberculosis 7,700-11,700 
1739–1740 The measles epidemic of the thirteen colonies 1739–1740 The thirteen colonies are unknown 
1741 Cartagena epidemic yellow fever 1741 Cartagena, Colombia Yellow fever 20,000 
1743 Sicily pandemic 1743 Messina, Sicily, Italy Bubonic disease 40,000-50,000  
1747 Outbreak of thirteen Colonial measles 1747 Disease of thirteen colonies Unknown
1759 measles outbreak in North America 1759 North America Measles unknown 
1760 Charleston smallpox 1760 Charleston, Britain, North America Smallpox 730–940  
1761 North America and the West Indies influenza epidemic 1761 North America, West Indies Influenza Unknown 
1762 yellow fever epidemic 1762 Havana, Cuba 8,000 yellow fever 
1763 Pittsburgh local smallpox outbreak 1763 North America, modern-day Pittsburgh Unidentified smallpox 
Russian plague of the year 1770–1772 1770–1772 Russia Bubonic disease 50,000 
1772 North America measles epidemic 1772 North America Unidentified Measles [required]
1772–1773 The Persian Plague 1772–1773 The Persian Plague Bubonic 2 million + 
1775–1776 Outbreak of England Fever 1775–1776 England Unknown Flu 
1775-1782 Smallpox epidemic in North America 1775-1782 Indigenous people in what is now the Pacific Northwest of the United States Smallpox 11,000+  
1778 outbreak of dengue fever in Spain 1778 Spain An unknown dengue fever 
1788 Pueblo Indians smallpox epidemic 1788 Pueblo Indians in northern New Spain (now Southwest United States) Smallpox Known 
1788 United States measles epidemic 1788 United States Measles Unknown [required]
1789-1790 New South Wales smallpox epidemic 1789-1790 New South Wales, Australia Smallpox (50-70% native)  
1793 United States flu and typhus epidemic 1793 United States Influenza and typhus epidemic Unknown 
1793 yellow fever fever 1793 Philadelphia, United States Yellow fever 5,000+ 
1800-1803 Spain yellow fever fever 1800-1803 Spain Yellow fever 60,000+ 
1801 Ottoman Empire and Egypt Epidemic Plague 1801 Ottoman Empire, Egypt Ububonic disease known
1800-1803 Spain yellow fever fever 1800-1803 Spain Yellow fever 60,000+ 
1801 Ottoman Empire and Egypt Epidemic Plague 1801 Ottoman Empire, Egypt Ububonic disease known
1802-1803 Yellow Fever 1802-1803 Saint-Domingue Yellow fever 29,000-55,000 
1812 Egyptian tuberculosis epidemic 1812 Egypt Bubonic disease Not yet known [required]
1812 Typhus epidemic in Russia 1812 Russia Typhus 300,000 
1812–19 Ottoman Epidemic Epidemic 1812-1819 Ottoman Empire Bubonic Disease 300,000+ 
1813-14 Malta epidemic 1813-1814 Malta Bubonic disease 4,500 
Caragea’s disease in 1813 in Romania Bubonic disease 60,000 
1817-1819 Ireland typhus epidemic 1817-1819 Ireland Typhus 65,000 
The first cholera epidemic in 1817-1824 in Asia, Europe Cholera 100,000+ 
1820 Savannah yellow fever epidemic 1820 Savannah, Georgia, United States Yellow fever 700 
1821 yellow fever fever 1821 Barcelona, Spain Yellow fever 5,000-20,000  
The second cholera epidemic in 1826-1837 in Asia, Europe, North America Cholera 100,000+ 
1828-1829 New South Wales smallpox epidemic 1828-1829 New South Wales, Australia Smallpox 19,000  
The Groningen Epidemic 1829 Netherlands Malaria 2,800 
1829-1833 Pacific Pacific malaria epidemic 1829-1833 Pacific Northwest, United States Malaria, possibly 150,000 other diseases  
1829–1835 Iran Outbreak of Disease 1829–1835 Iran Bubonic Disease Unknown 
1831-1834 Plains in India Smallpox epidemic 1831-1834 Plains in India Unidentified smallpox [required]
1834-1836 Egypt Plague Egypt 1834-1836 Egypt Bubonic Disease Unknown  
1837 Great Plains epidemic 1837-1838 Great Plains, United States and Canada Smallpox 17,000+ 
1840 South African smallpox epidemic 1840 South Africa Smallpox Unknown 
In 1841 the yellow fever epidemic in 1841 in the United States (mainly Louisiana and Florida) yellow fever 3,498 
1847 typhus North American typhus 1847-1848 Canada Typhus 20,000+ 
1847 Yellow fever fever in 1847 in the United States (especially New Orleans) yellow fever 3,400 
1847-1848 Influenza pandemic 1847-1848 Global Influenza Unknown 
1848-1849 Hawaii Disease epidemic 1848-1849 Hawaiian Kingdom Measles, cough, diarrhea and fever 10,000 
1850-1851 North American Flu 1850-1851 North America Influenza Unknown 
1853 Yellow fever fever in New Orleans 1853 New Orleans, United States Yellow fever 7,970 
The third cholera epidemic in 1846-1860 in Russia Cholera 1 million + 
1853 Turkish Empire epidemic disease 1853 Ottoman Empire Bubonic Disease Unknown 
1853 Copenhagen cholera outbreak 1853 Copenhagen, Denmark Cholera 4,737 
Cholera outbreak in 1854 Broad Street in 1854 in London, England Cholera 616 
1855 Yellow fever fever in Norfolk 1855 Norfolk and Portsmouth, England 3,000 yellow fever (2,000 in Norfolk, 1,000 in Portsmouth) 
The Third Epidemic Epidemic 1855-1960 Worldwide 12+ Bubonic Diseases (India and China)  
1857 Lisbon yellow fever 1857 Lisbon, Portugal Yellow fever 6,000 
1857 Victoria smallpox epidemic 1857 Victoria, Australia Smallpox smallpox 
1857-1859 Europe and America Influenza epidemic 1857-1859 Europe, North America, South America Unknown Flu 
1862-1863 British Columbia Smallpox Epidemic 1862-1863 British Columbia, Canada Smallpox 32,000  
1861-1865 United States typhoid fever 1861-1865 United States typhoid fever 80,000 
The fourth cholera outbreak in 1863-1875 Medium Medium 600,000 
1867 Sydney measles epidemic 1867 in Sydney, Australia 748 measles 
1871 plague of Buenos Aires yellow fever 1871 in Buenos Aires, Argentina Yellow fever 13,500–26,200 
1870-1875 Europe smallpox epidemic 1870-1875 Europe smallpox 500,000  
Fiji measles outbreak in 1875 1875 Fiji Measles 40,000 
1875-1876 Australia Australian scarlet fever scarlet 1875-1876 Australia Scarlet fever 8,000 
1876 The Ottoman Empire destroys the plague 1876 The Ottoman Bubonic Empire destroys 20,000 
1878 yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans 1878 New Orleans, United States Yellow fever 4,046 
1878 yellow fever epidemic in Mississippi Valley 1878 Mississippi Valley, United States Yellow fever 13,000 
The fifth cholera epidemic of 1881-1896 in Asia, Africa, Europe, South America Cholera 298,600 
1885 smallpox epidemic in Montreal 1885 in Montreal, Canada Smallpox 3,164 
Influenza flu 1889-1890 1889-1890 World Flu or HCoV-OC43   (arguably) one million 
Bombay Epidemic (Part 3 Epidemic) 1896-1905 Bombay, India Bubonic Disease 20,788 
1896-1906 Congo Congo African trypanosomiasis epidemic 1896-1906 Congo Congo 500,000 African trypanosomiasis 
Porto’s outbreak in 1899 (part of the Third Plague) in 1899 in Porto, Portugal Bubonic plague 132 
Sixth cholera epidemic 1899–1923 Europe, Asia, Africa Cholera 800,000+ 
San Francisco Disease 1900-1904 (part of Third Epidemic) 1900-1904 in San Francisco, United States Bubonic Disease 119 
1900 Sydney Bubonic Epidemic (part of Third Epidemic) 1900 Australia Bubonic Epidemic 103 
Uganda 1900–1920 Uganda African trypanosomiasis epidemic 1900-191920 Uganda African trypanosomiasis 200,000-300,000 
Papua New Guinea Epidemic 1901-2009 Papua New Guinea Large 2,700-3,000 +  
1903 Indian epidemic (part of the Third Plague) 1903 India Bubonic Plague 22 
1903 Fremantle Epidemic (part of Third Epidemic) 1903 Fremantle, Western Australia Bubonic Disease 4 
The outbreak of malaria in 1906 in Ceylon 1906-1936 Ceylon Malaria 80,000 
Manchurian disease (part of the Third Plague) 1910-1911 China 60,000 Lung Disease 
1910 China Bacteria (part of the Third Plague) 1910–1912 China Bubonic disease 40,000 
1915 Encephalitis lethargica 1915-1926 Worldwide Encephalitis lethargica 500,000   
1916 Polio epidemic in the United States 1916 United States Poliomyelitis 7,130 
1918 Influenza epidemic (‘Spanish Flu’) 1918-1920 World Flu Virus H1N1 virus
17-100 million   
1918–1922 Typhus in Russia 1918–1922 Russia Typhus 2-3 million 
1924 Los Angeles pneumonia outbreak 1924 Los Angeles, United States Lung disease 30 
Minnesota smallpox epidemic 1924-1925 Minnesota, United States Smallpox 500 
1927 Typhoid fever fever 1927 Montreal, Canada Typhoid fever 538 
1929-1930 Pandemic Psittacosis 1929-1930 Worldwide Psittacosis 100+ 
Croydon typhoid outbreak of 1937 1937 Croydon, United Kingdom Typhoid fever 43 
1937 polio epidemic in Australia 1937 Australia Poliomyelitis Unidentified 
1940 Yellow fever epidemic in 1940 Sudan Yellow fever 1,627 
1942–1944 Egypt malaria epidemic 1942–1944 Egypt Malaria Unidentified  
1946 China epidemic (part of the Third Plague) 1946 China Bubonic Disease Unknown [required]
1946 Egypt reverses the flu epidemic 1946 Egypt The flu recurrence is unknown  
1947 Cholera epidemic in Egypt 1947 Egypt Cholera 10,277   
1948-1952 United States Poliomyelitis Influenza 1948–1952 United States Poliomyelitis 9,000 
1957-1958 flu pandemic (‘Asian flu’) 1957-1958 World Flu virus less than 1 million H2N2 virus   
1960-1962 Ethiopia yellow fever epidemic 1960-1962 Ethiopia Yellow fever 30,000 
Seventh cholera outbreak 1961-1975 World Cholera (El Tor strain) Unknown 
Hong Kong Flu 1968-1970 Worldwide (especially in Hong Kong) Influenza Sub-type H3N2 virus
1-4 million   
1971 Staphorst polio epidemic in 1971 in Staphorst, Netherlands Poliomyelitis 5 
1972 Yugoslavia outbreak 1972 Yugoslavia Smallpox 35 
London influenza 1972-1973 United States Influenza H3N2 virus type 1,027 
1973 Cholera El Tor epidemic 1973 Italy Cholera (El Tor type) 24 
1974 Indian smallpox epidemic 1974 India Smallpox 15,000 
Soviet Influenza 1977-78 Worldwide Influenza Virus H1N1 10,000-30,000  
The Worst Pandamic situation in U.S. History
1633-1634: Smallpox from European settlers
Smallpox arrived in North America in the 1600’s. Symptoms included a high fever, chills, severe back pain, and rash. It originated in the Northeast and the Native Americans were devastated by it as it spread to the west.
In 1721, more than 6,000 cases were reported in Boston’s 11,000 inhabitants. An estimated 850 people died from the disease.
In 1770, Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for cattle poisoning. It helps the body to prevent smallpox without causing the disease.
Now: After a major vaccination campaign in 1972, smallpox has left the United States. In fact, vaccines are no longer needed.
1793: Yellow fever from the Caribbean
On a humid summer, refugees fleeing the yellow fever epidemic in the Caribbean islands headed for Philadelphia, carrying the virus.
Yellow fever causes skin yellowing, fever, and bloody vomiting. At the time of the outbreak in 1793, it was estimated that 10 percent of the city’s population died and many others fled the city to avoid it.
The vaccine was developed and licensed in 1953. One vaccine is enough for a lifetime. It is highly recommended for those 9 months and older, especially if you live or visit high-risk areas.
You can find a list of countries where the vaccine is recommended for a visit to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Now: Mosquitoes are key to how the disease spreads, especially in places like Central America, South America, and Africa. Mosquito control has been effective in controlling yellow fever.
While there is no cure for yellow fever, a person who recovers from an illness has lifelong strength.
1832-1866: Cholera in three waves
The United States had three serious waves of cholera, intestinal infections, between 1832 and 1866. The epidemic began in India and quickly spread worldwide through trade routes.
New York City was the first U.S. city to enter the United States. Feeling the impact. Between 5 and 10% A reliable source of population has died in major cities.
It is not clear what caused the epidemic, but it could be climate change or the use of segregation methods. By the early 1900’s, the outbreak was over.
Prompt treatment is important because cholera can cause death. Treatment includes antibiotics, zinc supplementation, and physical rehabilitation.
Now: Cholera still causes about 95,000Trust Source deaths a year worldwide, according to the CDC. Modern sanitation and water have helped to eradicate cholera from other countries, but the virus still exists elsewhere.
You can get a cholera vaccine if you plan to go to high-risk areas. The best way to prevent cholera is to wash your hands often with soap and water and to avoid drinking contaminated water.
1858: Red fever also comes with waves
Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection that can occur behind the strep throat. Like cholera, the red flu epidemic came in waves.
Scarlet fever usually affects children aged 5 to 15 years. Rarely in children under 3 years of age. Adults who come in contact with sick children have an increased risk.
Older studies say that the red fever has decreased due to poor nutrition, but studies show that improvements in public health could be the cause.
Now: There is no vaccine to prevent strep throat or scarlet fever. It is important for those with a sore throat to seek immediate treatment. Your doctor will treat you with a scarlet fever with antibiotics.
1906-1907: “Mary Typhoid”
One of the worst typhoid fever epidemics that ever occurred was between 1906 and 1907 in New York.
Mary Mallon, often referred to as “Typhoid Mary,” transmitted the virus to about 122 New Yorkers during her time as a cook in a hospital.
About five of New York’s 122Trust Source infected with the virus are Mary Mallon dead. The CDC cites a reliable Source of 13,160 deaths in 1906 and 12,670 deaths in 1907.
Medical tests showed that Mallon was a healthy carrier of typhoid fever. Typhoid fever can cause illness and red spots on the chest and abdomen.
The vaccine was developed in 1911, and in 1948, an antiretroviral drug was discovered.
Now: Today typhoid fever is common. But it can be spread through direct contact with infected people, as well as through contaminated food or water.
1918: H1N1 flu
H1N1 is a type of flu that still travels around the world every year.
In 1918, it was the common cold caused by a flu epidemic, sometimes called the Spanish flu (though not actually reaching Spain).
After World War I, flu cases dropped dramatically. No recommendations were given at the time (wearing a mask, drinking coal oil) was an effective treatment. Modern therapies include bed rest, fluids, and antimicrobials.
Now: Influenza types change every year, making last year’s vaccines less effective. It is important to get an annual vaccine to reduce the risk of the flu.
1921-1925: Diphtheria epidemic
Diphtheria reached 1921, with 206,000 cases the Trusted Source. It causes inflammation of the mucous membranes, including your throat, which can prevent breathing and swallowing.
Sometimes the toxin can enter the bloodstream and cause fatal heart and emotional damage.
In the mid-1920’s, researchers licensed a vaccine against viral infections. Infection rates have dropped dramatically in the United States.
Now: Today more than 80 percent of the reliable source of children in the United States are vaccinated, according to the CDC. Those who contract the disease are treated with antibiotics.
1916-1955: High polio rate
Polio is a viral disease that affects the nervous system, causing paralysis. It is spread through direct contact with infected people.
Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during the 1950’s in the United States, where polio occurred twice in 1916 and 1952. Of the 57 628 reported cases reported in 1952, 3,145 people were killed.
In 1955, the vaccine was approved by Dr. Jonas Salk. It was quickly adopted worldwide. In 1962, the average number of cases dropped to 910. A CDCTrusted source reports that the United States has been free of polio since 1979.
Now: Getting a goal is very important before you leave. There is no cure for pneumonia. Treatment involves raising the levels of comfort and preventing complications.
1957: H2N2 flu
A major flu outbreak also occurred in 1957. The H2N2 virus, which is derived from birds, was first reported in Singapore in February 1957, and then in Hong Kong in April 1957.
It emerged in coastal cities in the United States in the summer of 1957.
The estimated death toll was 1.1 million worldwide and 116,000 in the United States Reliable Source.
The disease is considered small because it is caught early. Scientists have been able to develop an information-based vaccine since the invention of the first flu vaccine in 1942.
Now: H2N2 is no longer circulating in humans, but is still infecting birds and pigs. It is possible for the virus to re-jump from animals to humans in the future.
1981-1991: Second measles outbreak
Measles is a virus that causes fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and sore throat, and later there is an outbreak that spreads throughout the body.
It is an infectious disease that spreads through the air. Almost all children’s sources Trust Source caught measles before vaccination. In the second half of the 20th century, many cases were caused by immunizations.
Doctors began recommending a second vaccine for everyone. Since then, each year it has had less than 1,000 Trusted Source cases, or this has been exceeded in 2019.
Now: The United States has experienced a small outbreak of measles in recent years. The CDC says uninvited travelers visiting abroad can contract the disease. Upon returning home to the United States, they passed it on to others who had not been vaccinated.
Make sure you get all the vaccines your doctor recommends.
1993: Contaminated water in Milwaukee
One of the two water treatment plants Milwaukee is contaminated with cryptosporidium, a virus that causes cryptosporidiosis infection. Symptoms include dehydration, fever, stomach cramps, and diarrhea.
The first study revealed that 403,000 people were sick and 69 died, according to the Water and Health Council, making it the largest water outbreak in U.S. history.
Many people recover on their own. Of the dead, most had at risk the immune system.
Now: Cryptosporidiosis still worries every year. The CDC reports that cases increased by 13 percent per year Trusted Source between 2009 and 2017. The number of cases and outbreaks varies from given year to year.
Cryptosporidium spreads through soil, food, water, or contact with contaminated sewage. It is one of the most common causes of illness that occurs in the summer for recreational water and can be easily spread from farm animals or child care facilities.
Be sure to do personal hygiene, such as washing your hands, when camping, or after touching animals. Avoid swimming if you have diarrhea.
2009: H1N1 flu
In the spring of 2009, the H1N1 virus was discovered in the United States and spread rapidly throughout the country and worldwide. The outbreak made headlines like swine flu.
The CDC estimates the Trusted Source that there were 60.8 million cases, 274,304 hospitals, and 12,469 deaths in the United States.
Globally, 80 percent of these outbreaks are estimated to occur in people under 65 years of age.
In late December 2009, the H1N1 vaccine was available to everyone who wanted it. Viral activity rates begin to decline.
Now: H1N1 type still rotates at certain times of the year, but causes fewer deaths and hospitalizations. The flu crisis changes every year, making last year’s vaccines less effective. It is important to get an annual vaccine to reduce the risk of the flu.
2010, 2014: Cough cough
Pertussis, also known as a cough, is highly contagious and is one of the most common diseases in the United States. This cough attack can last for months.
Infants too young to be vaccinated are at greater risk of life-threatening cases. During the first outbreak, 10 Infants Trust Source died.
Coughing occurs every three to five years. The CDC reports to a Reliable Source that the increase in the number of cases is likely to be a “new norm.”
Now: The incidence of this disease is much lower than it once was. The CDC recommends a Reliable Source all people need a vaccine, but that pregnant women receive the vaccine during the third trimester to increase protection at birth.
It is also recommended that all children, and anyone who has not been vaccinated before, receive a vaccine.
1980 to introduce: HIV and AIDS
First written in 1981, the epidemic known today as HIV has been identified as a rare lung disease. We now know that HIV damages the immune system and weakens its ability to fight infections.
AIDS is the last phase of HIV and, according to the CDC, in 2018 was the ninth leading cause of death in the United States among people aged 25 to 34. Just because a person gets HIV does not mean they will have AIDS.
HIV can be transmitted sexually or through blood or body fluids from one person to another. It can be passed from mother to unborn child if left untreated.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) is a way to have high-risk areas to avoid HIV infection before exposure. The pill (brand name Truvada) contains two drugs that are used in combination with other drugs to treat HIV.
When a person becomes infected with HIV through sex or injecting drugs, these drugs can work to keep the virus from becoming permanently infected.
The CDC believes that for the first time in modern history, the world has the tools to control the HIV epidemic without a vaccine or cure, while laying the foundation for eradicating HIV.
Epidemic control requires access to high-risk groups through treatment and prevention.
Now: Although there is no cure for HIV, the risk of transmission can be reduced with safety precautions, such as making sure the needles are cleaned and sexual through contraceptives.
Safety measures can be taken during pregnancy to prevent the disease from being passed from mother to baby.
In emergencies, PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) is a new antiretroviral drug that prevents HIV from growing within 72 hours.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus, a type of coronavirus that causes COVID-19, was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in late 2019. It seems to be spreading easily and socially.
Cases have been reported worldwide, and by the end of May 2020, there were more than 1.5 million cases and more than 100,000 deaths in the United States.
Things to know about covid19 pendmic
Cases are on the rise. Take action now! Wear a mask; Sit on 6 feet; Avoid crowds.
8 Things You Need to Know
Updated Jan. 5, 2021
Now that there are now approved vaccines to prevent COVID-19 in the United States, here are 8 things you need to know about the new COVID-19 vaccine and the COVID-19 vaccine.
More details for health workers
The safety of the COVID-19 vaccine is a priority.
U.S. Vaccine Safety Program It ensures that all vaccines are as safe as possible. Learn how government partners work together to ensure the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines.
The CDC has developed a new tool, v-safe, as an additional layer of security monitoring to increase our ability to quickly detect any security issues with COVID-19 standards. The V-safe is a new smartphone-based spy, after vaccination of people receiving COVID-19 vaccines.
The COVID-19 vaccine will help protect you from getting COVID-19. Two doses are required.
Depending on the particular vaccine you are receiving, a second shot 3-4 weeks after your first shot to get the most effective immunizations should be given to this serious disease. Learn more about the benefits of immunization.
The CDC recommends who should be given the COVID-19 vaccine first when the supply is limited.
To help guide decisions on how to distribute the first limited doses of the COVID-19 vaccine, the CDC and the Immunization Advisory Committee have issued recommendations on which groups should be vaccinated first.
Learn more about who should be vaccinated first when vaccination offers are limited.
There is currently a limited dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in the United States, but access to it will increase in the coming weeks and months.
The goal is for everyone to be able to easily be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as a large enough number is available. As soon as the vaccine becomes widely available, the program will feature several thousand vaccine providers who provide COVID-19 vaccines to doctors’ offices, pharmacies, hospitals, and appropriate health facilities.
After you are vaccinated with COVID-19, you may have other side effects. This is a common sign that your body is building up defenses.
The side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine may feel like the flu and may affect your ability to perform daily activities, but it should go away in a few days. Learn more about the side effects you can expect and get helpful tips on how to reduce pain and discomfort after vaccination.
Cost is not a barrier to COVID-19 vaccination.
Vaccines volumes purchased in U.S. taxpayers’ dollars It will be provided to Americans for free. However, vaccine providers can charge an administrative fee for providing a shotgun. Vaccine suppliers can be reimbursed by the state or private patient insurance company or, for uninsured patients, an external icon of the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Provider Relief Fund.
The first COVID-19 vaccine is used under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Many other vaccines are still being developed and tested.
Learn more about the FDA’s external token emergency authorization and watch a video of what the EUA is.
If most COVID-19 drugs are approved or approved by the FDA, the ACIP Advisory Committee (ACIP) will immediately hold public meetings to review all available information on each drug and make recommendations for use in the United States. Learn more about how the CDC makes recommendations for the COVID-19 vaccine.
All ACIP-recommended vaccines will be included in the U.S. Immunization Program COVID-19. The CDC continues to work at all levels with partners, including health care organizations, on the flexible COVID-19 vaccine program that can accept different vaccines and adapt to different conditions. The State, national, local and local health departments have established distribution programs to ensure that all recommended treatments are available in their communities.
The COVID-19 vaccine is one of the most important tools to help us prevent the epidemic.
It is important for everyone to continue to use all available tools to help stop this epidemic as we learn more about how the COVID-19 vaccine works in real-world situations. Cover your mouth and nose with a mask when around others, stay at least six feet [6 m] away from others, avoid crowds, and wash your hands often.
CDC will continue to review this website as vaccine recommendations and feed changes.
Covid19 effect on us Trade markets
Even with COVID-19 destroying businesses around the world, stock markets are tightening.
McKinsey experts explain 3 things after this.
The speed of business is an important indicator of success in the midst of the current epidemic.
The stock market is mostly confused. Here is our definition.
In the midst of a deep recession in memory, stock markets are reaching an all-time high. Why disconnected? To understand the conundrum, McKinsey experts point out three things. First, many investors still take a long-term view; they look forward to the end of the epidemic. Another factor: five high-tech companies now make up 21 percent of the S&P 500, one of the most watched markets in the world. And small, unregistered companies have taken a heavy toll on the economy, such as the huge increase in unemployment. The stock market as a whole can perform very well even when employment and GDP are under severe stress (on display).
Investors can also focus on the big difference in firmness in companies. We interviewed leaders in several UK companies that have done better than others during the crisis. What separates them, in one word, is selfishness. From the same goal in speedy decision-making to local empowered groups, these companies have found ways to respond more quickly to COVID-19. Key discovery: Brexit no-deal war games form a solid foundation for strong market sales.
A new podcast this week explored those similar transaction issues, according to a McKinsey Global Institute report for August 2020 on risk and dynamics. Experts Ed Barriball and Susan Lund explain the findings of the study that, on average, companies can expect disruptions to their production lines for one to two months – for a very long time – every three and a half to four years.
Covid19 also effect on usa GDP growth.
The United States’ real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an annual rate of 33.1 per cent and 7.4 per cent sequentially in the third quarter of 2020, signaling a rebound of the economy from impacts of the coronavirus pandemic. In the second quarter, US real GDP contracted by 31.4 per cent (9 per cent at a quarterly rate), marking lowest economic growth since the government started keeping records in 1947, according to the second estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis on Wednesday.
“The increase in third quarter GDP reflected continued efforts to reopen businesses and resume activities that were postponed or restricted due to COVID-19,” the US Commerce Department said.
The overall rise in the GDP remained unrevised from its first estimate, although some components were revised. Personal consumption expenditures (PCE), private inventory investment, exports, non-residential fixed investment, and residential fixed investment were revised upward, while state and local government spending were downgraded.
The PCE index, a measure of consumer spending, increased 3.7 per cent, in contrast to a decrease of 1.6 per cent, reflecting increase in services (led by healthcare as well as food services and accommodations) and goods (led by clothing and footwear as well as motor vehicles and parts).
The growth estimates for the fourth quarter has been pegged below 5 per cent at annualised rate. Recently, Goldman Sachs cut its US growth forecasts for fourth quarter to 3.5 per cent from 4.5 per cent and that of first quarter of 2021 to 1 per cent as compared to 3.5 per cent projected earlier, citing the “rapid and broad-based resurgence of the coronavirus”.